In this article, Type Media Center fellow Nick Turse covers Rep. Sara Jacobs’ advocation for acknowledgment and reparations in addressing civilian harm in U.S. military operations.


  • No Acknowledgment, No Amends: The article notes that Rep. Jacobs has called on the Pentagon to compensate a Somali family, after a 2018 U.S. drone strike killed a woman and her 4-year-old daughter. Despite the family seeking explanations and reparations, they have received no response after five years.
  • New Protocol: Turse details the new “Instruction on Civilian Harm Mitigation and Response” (DoD-I) released by the Pentagon in December, which aims to acknowledge civilian harm and provide ex gratia payments to affected civilians and communities.
  • Training Test: The article references an assessment being conducted by the Government Accountability Office, which will determine the efficacy of civilian harm training, with a report expected by March 1.
  • Advocating for Accountability: Rep. Jacobs has been advocating for greater accountability for civilian casualties, having introduced legislation and provisions in the 2024 National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA).

Type Media Center’s Note

This article by our fellow Nick Turse reflects Type Media Center’s dedication to nurturing independent journalism that not only informs but strives for societal change.